ASTM E methods for grain counting using microscope reticle. cited ASTM standards, is concerned with the measurement of grain size when the grains are . What is ASTM E standard, and why is this of importance? Number”. Therefore, an image with very small size grains will have more boundaries, resulting in. Using ASTM E as our accredited test specification, and an optical microscope , we can determine the average grain size in various metallic materials.

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At the time of purchase, the user should determine if the Intercept or Planimetric method is more appropriate. Application to Special Situations.

With accessories including a coded revolving nosepiece and software, the microscope’s modular design makes it easy to customize for your requirements.

Specimens with Non-equiaxed Grain Shapes.

Grain Size Analysis in Metals and Alloys

Sorry, this page is not available in your country. For higher degrees of accuracy in determining average grain size, the intercept or planimetric procedures may be used.

In the metallographic laboratory, analyzing grains in metallic and alloy samples, such as aluminum or steel, is important for quality-control. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. These charts were constructed to reflect the typical log-normal distribution of grain sizes that result when a plane is passed through a three-dimensional array of grains.

Because Grain Size analysis can be performed reliably in gray scale mode where setting threshold parameters is simpler than color modethe chosen camera should be capable of imaging in gray scale mode as opposed to color only. The chosen image-analysis software should be capable of automatically reading the objective lens magnification at all times. The three basic procedures for grain size estimation are: Utilization of semi-automatic digitizing tablets or automatic image analyzers to measure grain size is described in Test Methods E How can a metallurgical quality-control laboratory implement a turn-key, fully-automated grains analysis solution, eliminating potential inaccuracies and subjectivity introduced by the human factor, while complying with ASTM E or other international standards?


To learn more about how we use cookies on this website, and how you can restrict our use of cookies, please review our Cookie Policy. Although this may sound confusing, a general rule of thumb is that most common material-science microscopy specific cameras 3MP or greater considering the pixel size of most common CCD and CMOS sensors are recommended for Grains analysis.

Thanks to advancements in material-science microscopy specific software, operators can leverage image-analysis to analyze grains, in compliance with ASTM E as well as a wide-variety of international standards.

Dividing the lens resolution 1. Characterization of grain size in specimens with duplex grain size distributions is described in Test Methods E Contact Us Get a Quote. Many software packages are designed to comply with ASTM E and a wide-range of international standards, and can be implemented with minimal efforts.

It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of graih standard. The three basic procedures for grain size estimation are:. Here, operators perform a visual estimation of the grain size by comparing a live image under an optical microscope to a micrograph chart, often posted on the wall near the microscope.

When a metal or alloy is processed, the atoms within each growing grain are lined up in a specific pattern, depending on the crystal structure of sample. Unlike former techniques where operators performed a visual estimation of the grain size, or “G-Number” manually by eye, modern material-science microscope specific image-analysis software allows the grain size to be calculated accurately and repeatedly, as human intervention is minimized.


When considering a digital camera for Grains analysis, more important than digital resolution is the pixel size, or resulting pixel density. Additionally, how can the data be automatically archived and reports automatically generated-all while saving valuable time and money?

Grain Size Analysis in Metals and Alloys

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Example of a microscope eyepiece reticle used to compare against a live image. A coded manual or motorized revolving objective nosepiece is recommended. Image of Grains in Steel at x Magnification. Since the results are calculated internally within the image-analysis software, the guesswork attributed to the human element is removed.

These test methods apply chiefly to single phase grain structures but they can be applied to determine the average size of a particular type of grain structure in a multiphase or multiconstituent specimen. After metallographic sample preparation, grains in a specific alloy are often analyzed via microscopy, where the size and distribution of these grains can demonstrate the integrity and quality of the sample. A PC meeting the minimum system requirements of the camera and image-analysis software, and high-resolution monitor are required.

This means that the actual, calibrated pixel size must be smaller than nm providing the required 3 pixels per smallest distinguishable feature. Sorry, this page is not available in your country Let us know what you’re looking for by filling out the form below.